April 19, 2014

Honest Networker

April 18, 2014

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

Coffee Break – Show 6

News of the Networking Industry in the time it takes to drink a coffee (more or less). This week we are joined by Amy Engineer to parse the news and dig into the business of technology.

by Packet Pushers Podcast at April 18, 2014 05:34 PM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Distributed DoS Mitigation with OpenFlow

Distributed DoS mitigation is another one of the “we were doing SDN without knowing it” cases: remote-triggered black holes are used by most major ISPs, and BGP Flowspec was available for years. Not surprisingly, people started using OpenFlow to implement the same concept (there’s even a proposal to integrate OpenFlow support into Bro IDS).

For more details, watch the Distributed DoS Prevention video recorded during the Real Life OpenFlow-based SDN Use Cases webinar.

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 18, 2014 09:03 AM

Aaron's Worthless Words

My Schedule for Cisco Live 2014

Everything is in order for my trip to Cisco Live 2014 in San Francisco.  Conference passes are purchased.  Hotels are reserved.  Flights are booked.  It’s going to be a great event, and I can’t wait!

Note:  My wife will be with me again this year, and she is trying to get a tour group going to look around the city while others are in sessions.  If you want to be in on the tourist action, contact her via Twitter.

As per tradition (a new tradition, but a tradition nonetheless), here is my schedule for the week.  Also as tradition, I’m bound to only do about 20% of what’s documented here.  If you’ve ever been, you know what I mean.  Here we go.

Saturday, May 17
13:00 - Arrive in SFO

Sunday, May 18
14:00 - Exam
16:00 or so - Tweetup

Monday, May 19
08:00 - BRKCRT-2001 - NX-OS, IOS, IOS-XR, 
     Unique and Similar at the Same Time w/ Joseph Rinehart
10:00 - BRKCRT-2000 - HardCore IPv6 Routing - No Fear 
     w/ Scott Morris, Donnie Moss
13:00 - BRKCCIE-3345 - The CCIE Candidate's Introduction 
     to MPLS L3VPN Networks w/ Keith Barker
15:30 - GENKEY-2200 - Cisco Live Welcome Keynote w/ John Chambers
17:00 - GENREC-2000 - World of Solutions: Welcome Reception 
     w/ everyone at the conference

Tuesday, May 20
08:00 - BRKRST-2509 - Mastering Data Center QoS w/ Lucien Avramov
10:00 - GENKEY-2300 - Cisco Live Technology Keynote: Infrastructure 
     for The Agile Enterprise w/ Rob Lloyd
12:30 - BRKCCIE-3003 - DMVPN for Route & Switching CCIE Candidates 
     w/ Johnny Bass
15:00 - BRKRST-2301 - Enterprise IPv6 Deployment w/ Tim Martin
17:00 - GENREC-2100 - World of Solutions: Reception 
     w/ everyone at the conference

Wednesday, May 21
08:00 - BRKRST-3371 - Advances in BGP w/ Gunter Van de Velde
10:00 - GENKEY-2400 - Cisco Live Partner Keynote: The Internet of Everything Ecosystem
     – Bringing IT and OT Together with the Internet of Things w/ IoE bingo
12:00 - MTE-5872 - Meet the Engineer w/ David Prall
13:30 - BRKCRS-3036 - Advanced Enterprise Campus Design: Routed Access 
     w/ Tyler Creek
16:00 - BRKDCT-3346 - Advanced - End-to-End QoS Implementation and 
     Operation with Cisco Nexus w/ Lukas Krattiger
19:00 or so - Customer Appreciation Event!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Thursday, May 22
10:30 - GENKEY-2500 - Cisco Live Celebrity Keynote: Reinventing Education
     —The One World School House w/ Sal Kahn
12:30 - BRKRST-2667 - How to write an IPv6 Addressing Plan w/ Veronika McKillop
14:30 - BRKNMS-1035 - Cisco Live Network and NOC: Panel Discussion 
     moderated by Jimmy Ray Purser w/ Joe Clarke, Per Hagen, and Jimmy Ray Purser

Friday, May 23
Early early - Travel home

Send any Alcatraz boat tour tickets questions to me.

See you guys in a month!

by Aaron Conaway at April 18, 2014 12:21 AM

XKCD Comics

April 17, 2014

Networking Now (Juniper Blog)

FAQ: Protecting your OpenSSL Server from HeartBleed using IDP

Is it the Internet Armageddon? NO! Thanks to an Emergency Signature Release, IDP saves the day!

by Autonym at April 17, 2014 05:36 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

What is the value proposition of Standards in the age of Open Source?

I’ve been thinking about this question quite a bit over the last year [0] and interestingly a debate over just this issue has recently erupted  in the blogosphere (and elsewhere). Vidya Narayanan, who reignited the discussion with her blog “Why I Quit Writing Internet Standards” [1], calls for a “radical restructuring” of the IETF, IEEE and what […]

Author information

David Meyer

David Meyer is currently CTO and Chief Scientist at Brocade Communications, where he works on future directions for Internet technologies. Prior to joining Brocade, he was a Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems, where he also worked as a developer, architect, and visionary on future directions for Internet technologies. He is currently the chair of the Technical Steering Committee of the OpenDaylight Project. He has been a member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) of the the IETF (www.ietf.org) and the chair/co-chair of many working groups. He is also active in the operator community, where he has been a long standing member of the NANOG (www.nanog.org) program committee (and program committee chair from 2008-2011). He is also active in other standards organizations such as ETSI, ATIS, ANSI T1X1, the Open Networking Foundation, and the ITU-T.

Mr. Meyer is also currently Director of the Advanced Network Technology Center at the University of Oregon where he is also a Senior Research Scientist in the department of Computer Science.. One of his major projects at the University of Oregon is routeviews (see www.routeviews.org).

Prior to joining Cisco, he served as Senior Scientist, Chief Technologist and Director of IP Technology Development at Sprint.

The post What is the value proposition of Standards in the age of Open Source? appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by David Meyer at April 17, 2014 04:42 PM

Internetwork Expert Blog

INE’s CCIE RSv5 Expanded Blueprint

As many of you hopefully already know, the CCIE Routing & Switching certification blueprint is changing from version 4 to version 5 on June 3rd 2014. As this date quickly approaches, and as the last of the v4 lab seats are fully booked, it’s time to start planning your attack on the RSv5 blueprint.

While Cisco’s official blueprint for v5 is now more detailed that it has ever been in the past, it still lacks some details in certain areas, for example “Implement, optimize and troubleshoot filtering with any routing protocol.” Additionally it would be difficult to use Cisco’s blueprint for a study plan as it stands in its current linear format. For example “Layer 3 multicast” is listed before “Fundamental routing concepts”, which from a learning perspective doesn’t make sense, because you must understand unicast routing fully before you learn multicast routing. To help remedy this we’ve re-ordered and expanded Cisco’s blueprint into INE’s RSv5 Expanded Blueprint, which you can find below after the jump.

Our CCIE RSv5 Expanded Blueprint is meant to be used as a checklist that you can use as you go through your preparation. This way when you’re finally ready to attempt the lab exam, you can be assured that you’ve at least heard of all the topics in the scope, regardless of how obscure some of them might be. Additionally note that some topics listed below might appear only on the written exam and not the lab exam, such as MPLS Layer 2 VPNs or RIPng, but are still included in our content and the outline below.

The below outline will continue to be updated, so check back periodically during your preparation to see changes, adds, and removes.  Good luck in your studies!

INE’s CCIE RSv5 Expanded Blueprint

  • 1. LAN Switching
    • 1.1. VLANs & Trunking
      • 1.1.1. Standard VLANs
      • 1.1.2. Extended VLANs
      • 1.1.3. VLAN Database
      • 1.1.4. Access Ports
      • 1.1.5. 802.1q Trunk Ports
      • 1.1.6. 802.1q Native VLAN
      • 1.1.7. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)
      • 1.1.8. Trunking Allowed List
    • 1.2. VTP
      • 1.2.1. VTP Version 1, 2, & 3
      • 1.2.2. VTP Authentication
      • 1.2.3. VTP Pruning
      • 1.2.4. VTP Prune Eligible List
      • 1.2.5. VTPv3 & Private VLANs
    • 1.3. EtherChannels
      • 1.3.1. Static Layer 2 EtherChannels
      • 1.3.2. PAgP
      • 1.3.3. LACP
      • 1.3.4. Layer 3 EtherChannel
      • 1.3.5. EtherChannel Load Balancing
      • 1.3.6. EtherChannel Protocol Limiting
      • 1.3.7. EtherChannel Misconfig Guard
    • 1.4. Spanning-Tree Protocol
      • 1.4.1. PVST+
        • STP Root Bridge Election
        • STP Path Selection with Port Cost
        • STP Path Selection with Port Priority
        • STP Convergence Timers
      • 1.4.2. Optional STP Features
        • PortFast
        • UplinkFast
        • BackboneFast
        • BPDU Guard
        • BPDU Filter
        • Root Guard
      • 1.4.3. Rapid-PVST+
        • RSTP Convergence Optimizations
        • Edge Ports
      • 1.4.4. Multiple STP
        • MST Root Bridge Election
        • MST Path Selection with Port Cost
        • MST Path Selection with Port Priority
        • MST and CST/PVST+ Interoperability
        • Multi-Region MST
    • 1.5. 802.1q Tunneling
      • 1.5.1. L2 Protocol Tunneling
      • 1.5.2. Layer 2 MTU
      • 1.5.3. EtherChannel over 802.1q Tunneling
    • 1.6. Miscellaneous
      • 1.6.1. CDP
      • 1.6.2. LLDP
      • 1.6.3. UDLD
      • 1.6.4. CAM Aging Time
      • 1.6.5. SPAN
      • 1.6.6. RSPAN
      • 1.6.7. ERSPAN
      • 1.6.8. Flex Links
      • 1.6.9. Fallback Bridging
      • 1.6.10. Voice VLANs
      • 1.6.11. Smartport Macros
  • 2. Layer 2 WAN Circuits
    • 2.1. HDLC
    • 2.2. PPP
    • 2.3. PPP Authentication
    • 2.4. PPP Multilink
    • 2.5. PPPoE
  • 3. IP Routing
    • 3.1. Protocol Independent IPv4 Routing
      • 3.1.1. IPv4 Addressing
      • 3.1.2. IPv4 ARP
      • 3.1.3. Longest Match Routing
      • 3.1.4. Administrative Distance
      • 3.1.5. Static Routing
      • 3.1.6. Route Recursion
      • 3.1.7. Egress Interface vs. Next Hop Static Routing
      • 3.1.8. Default Routing
      • 3.1.9. CEF
      • 3.1.10. Floating Static Routes
      • 3.1.11. Backup Interface
      • 3.1.12. IP Service Level Agreement
      • 3.1.13. Enhanced Object Tracking
      • 3.1.14. Policy Routing
      • 3.1.15. Policy Routing and IP SLA
      • 3.1.16. Local Policy Routing
      • 3.1.17. GRE Tunnels
      • 3.1.18. IP in IP Tunnels
      • 3.1.19. Tunnels & Recursive Routing Errors
      • 3.1.20. On Demand Routing
      • 3.1.21. VRF Lite
      • 3.1.22. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
    • 3.2. Protocol Independent IPv6 Routing
      • 3.2.1. IPv6 Link-Local Addressing
      • 3.2.2. IPv6 Unique Local Addressing
      • 3.2.3. IPv6 Global Aggregatable Addressing
      • 3.2.4. IPv6 EUI-64 Addressing
      • 3.2.5. IPv6 Auto-Configuration / SLAAC
      • 3.2.6. IPv6 Global Prefix
      • 3.2.7. IPv6 Redistribution
      • 3.2.8. IPv6 Filtering
      • 3.2.9. IPv6 NAT-PT
      • 3.2.10. IPv6 MP-BGP
      • 3.2.11. IPv6 Tunneling
      • 3.2.12. Automatic 6to4 Tunneling
      • 3.2.13. ISATAP Tunneling
    • 3.3. Common Dynamic Routing Features
      • 3.3.1. Distance Vector vs. Link State vs. Path Vector routing protocols
      • 3.3.2. Passive Interfaces
      • 3.3.3. Routing Protocol Authentication
      • 3.3.4. Route Filtering
      • 3.3.5. Auto Summarization
      • 3.3.6. Manual Summarization
      • 3.3.7. Route Redistribution
        • Prefix Filtering with Route Tagging
        • Prefix Filtering with Manual Lists
        • Prefix Filtering with Administrative Distance
        • Administrative Distance Based Loops
        • Metric Based Loops
    • 3.4. RIP
      • 3.4.1. RIPv2
        • Initialization
          • Enabling RIPv2
          • RIP Send and Receive Versions
          • Split Horizon
          • RIPv2 Unicast Updates
          • RIPv2 Broadcast Updates
          • RIPv2 Source Validation
        • Path Selection
          • Offset List
        • Summarization
          • Auto-Summary
          • Manual Summarization
        • Authentication
          • Clear Text
          • MD5
        • Convergence Optimization & Scalability
          • RIPv2 Convergence Timers
          • RIPv2 Triggered Updates
        • Filtering
          • Filtering with Passive Interface
          • Filtering with Prefix-Lists
          • Filtering with Standard Access-Lists
          • Filtering with Extended Access-Lists
          • Filtering with Offset Lists
          • Filtering with Administrative Distance
          • Filtering with Per Neighbor AD
        • Default Routing
          • RIPv2 Default Routing
          • RIPv2 Conditional Default Routing
          • RIPv2 Reliable Conditional Default Routing
      • 3.4.2. RIPng
        • RIPng Overview
    • 3.5. EIGRP
      • 3.5.1. Initialization
        • Network Statement
        • Multicast vs. Unicast Updates
        • EIGRP Named Mode
        • EIGRP Multi AF Mode
        • EIGRP Split Horizon
        • EIGRP Next-Hop Processing
      • 3.5.2. Path Selection
        • Feasibility Condition
        • Modifying EIGRP Vector Attributes
        • Classic Metric
        • Wide Metric
        • Metric Weights
        • Equal Cost Load Balancing
        • Unequal Cost Load Balancing
        • EIGRP Add-Path
      • 3.5.3. Summarization
        • Auto-Summary
        • Manual Summarization
        • Summarization with Default Routing
        • Summarization with Leak Map
        • Summary Metric
      • 3.5.4. Authentication
        • MD5
        • HMAC SHA2-256bit
        • Automatic key rollover
      • 3.5.5. Convergence Optimization & Scalability
        • EIGRP Convergence Timers
        • EIGRP Query Scoping with Summarization
        • EIGRP Query Scoping with Stub Routing
        • Stub Routing with Leak Map
        • Bandwidth Pacing
        • IP FRR
        • Graceful Restart & NSF
      • 3.5.6. Filtering
        • Filtering with Passive Interface
        • Filtering with Prefix-Lists
        • Filtering with Standard Access-Lists
        • Filtering with Extended Access-Lists
        • Filtering with Offset Lists
        • Filtering with Administrative Distance
        • Filtering with Per Neighbor AD
        • Filtering with Route Maps
        • Per Neighbor Prefix Limit
        • Redistribution Prefix Limit
      • 3.5.7. Miscellaneous EIGRP
        • EIGRP Default Network
        • EIGRP Default Metric
        • EIGRP Neighbor Logging
        • EIGRP Router-ID
        • EIGRP Maximum Hops
        • no next-hop-self no-ecmp-mode
        • EIGRP Route Tag Enhancements
      • 3.5.8. EIGRPv6
        • Enabling EIGRPv6
        • EIGRPv6 Split Horizon
        • EIGRPv6 Next-Hop Processing
        • EIGRPv6 Authentication
        • EIGRPv6 Metric Manipulation
        • EIGRPv6 Default Routing
        • EIGRPv6 Summarization
        • EIGRPv6 Prefix Filtering
        • EIGRPv6 Stub Routing
        • EIGRPv6 Link Bandwidth
        • EIGRPv6 Timers
        • EIGRP IPv6 VRF Lite
        • EIGRP Over The Top
    • 3.6. OSPF
      • 3.6.1. Initialization
        • Network Statement
        • Interface Statement
      • 3.6.2. Network Types
        • Broadcast
        • Non-Broadcast
        • OSPF DR/BDR Election Manipulation
        • Point-to-Point
        • Point-to-Multipoint
        • Point-to-Multipoint Non-Broadcast
        • Loopback
        • LSA Types
        • OSPF Next-Hop Processing
        • Unicast vs. Multicast Hellos
      • 3.6.3. Path Selection
        • Auto-Cost
        • Cost
        • Bandwidth
        • Per-Neighbor Cost
        • Non-Backbone Transit Areas
        • Virtual-Links
      • 3.6.4. Authentication
        • Area
        • Interface level
        • Clear Text
        • MD5
        • Null
        • MD5 with Multiple Keys
        • SHA1-196
        • Virtual link
      • 3.6.5. Summarization
        • Internal Summarization
        • External Summarization
        • Path Selection with Summarization
        • Summarization and Discard Routes
      • 3.6.6. Stub Areas
        • Stub Areas
        • Totally Stubby Areas
        • Not-So-Stubby Areas
        • Not-So-Stubby Areas and Default Routing
        • Not-So-Totally-Stubby Areas
        • Stub Areas with Multiple Exit Points
        • NSSA Type-7 to Type-5 Translator Election
        • NSSA Redistribution Filtering
      • 3.6.7. Filtering
        • Filtering with Distribute-Lists
        • Filtering with Administrative Distance
        • Filtering with Route-Maps
        • Filtering with Summarization
        • LSA Type-3 Filtering
        • Forwarding Address Suppression
        • NSSA ABR External Prefix Filtering
        • Database Filtering
      • 3.6.8. Default Routing
        • Default Routing
        • Conditional Default Routing
        • Reliable Conditional Default Routing
        • Default Cost
      • 3.6.9. Convergence Optimization & Scalability
        • Interface Timers
        • Fast Hellos
        • LSA & SPF Throttling
        • LSA & SPF Pacing
        • Single Hop LFA / IP FRR
        • Multihop LFA
        • Stub Router Advertisement
        • Demand Circuit
        • Flooding Reduction
        • Transit Prefix Filtering
        • Resource Limiting
        • Graceful Restart & NSF
        • Incremental SPF
      • 3.6.10. Miscellaneous OSPF Features
      • 3.6.11. OSPFv3
        • LSA Types
        • OSPFv3
        • OSPFv3 Network Types
        • OSPFv3 Prefix Suppression
        • OSPFv3 Virtual Links
        • OSPFv3 Summarization
        • OSPFv3 IPsec Authentication
        • OSPFv3 Multi AF Mode
        • TTL Security
    • 3.7. BGP
      • 3.7.1. Establishing Peerings
        • iBGP Peerings
        • EBGP Peerings
        • Update Source Modification
        • Multihop EBGP Peerings
        • Neighbor Disable-Connected-Check
        • Authentication
        • TTL Security
        • BGP Peer Groups
        • 4 Byte ASNs
        • Active vs. Passive Peers
        • Path MTU Discovery
        • Multi Session TCP Transport per AF
        • Dynamic BGP Peering
      • 3.7.2. iBGP Scaling
        • Route Reflectors
        • Route Reflector Clusters
        • Confederations
      • 3.7.3. BGP Next Hop Processing
        • Next-Hop-Self
        • Manual Next-Hop Modification
        • Third Party Next Hop
        • Next Hop Tracking
        • Conditional Next Hop Tracking
        • BGP Next-Hop Trigger Delay
      • 3.7.4. BGP NLRI Origination
        • Network Statement
        • Redistribution
        • BGP Redistribute Internal
        • Conditional Advertisement
        • Conditional Route Injection
      • 3.7.5. BGP Bestpath Selection
        • Weight
        • Local Preference
        • AS-Path Prepending
        • Origin
        • MED
        • Always Compare MED
        • Deterministic MED
        • AS-Path Ignore
        • Router-IDs
        • DMZ Link Bandwidth
        • Maximum AS Limit
        • Multipath
      • 3.7.6. BGP Aggregation
        • BGP Auto-Summary
        • Aggregation
        • Summary Only
        • Suppress Map
        • Unsuppress Map
        • AS-Set
        • Attribute-Map
        • Advertise Map
      • 3.7.7. BGP Communities
        • Standard
        • Extended
        • No-Advertise
        • No-Export
        • Local-AS
        • Deleting
      • 3.7.8. Filtering
        • Prefix-Lists
        • Standard Access-Lists Task
        • Extended Access-Lists
        • Maximum Prefix
        • BGP Regular Expressions
        • Outbound Route Filtering (ORF)
        • Soft Reconfiguration Inbound
      • 3.7.9. AS-Path Manipulation
        • Local AS
        • Local AS Replace-AS/Dual-AS
        • Remove Private AS
        • Allow AS In
        • AS Override
      • 3.7.10. BGP Convergence Optimization
        • BGP Timers Tuning
        • BGP Fast Fallover
        • BGP Prefix Independent Convergence (PIC)
        • BGP Dampening
        • BGP Dampening with Route-Map
        • BGP Add Path
      • 3.7.11. BGP Default Routing
      • 3.7.12. IPv6 BGP
      • 3.7.13. Misc BGP
        • iBGP Synchronization
        • BGP over GRE
        • BGP Backdoor
    • 3.8. Route Redistribution
      • 3.8.1. Metric Based Loops
      • 3.8.2. Administrative Distance Based Loops
      • 3.8.3. Route Tag Filtering
      • 3.8.4. IP Route Profile
      • 3.8.5. Debug IP Routing
    • 3.9. Miscellaneous Routing Features
  • 4. VPN
    • 4.1. MPLS
      • 4.1.1. VRF Lite
      • 4.1.2. MPLS LDP
      • 4.1.3. MPLS Ping
      • 4.1.4. MPLS Traceroute
      • 4.1.5. MPLS Label Filtering
      • 4.1.6. MP-BGP VPNv4
      • 4.1.7. MP-BGP Prefix Filtering
      • 4.1.8. PE-CE Routing with RIP
      • 4.1.9. PE-CE Routing with OSPF
      • 4.1.10. OSPF Sham-Link
      • 4.1.11. PE-CE Routing with EIGRP
      • 4.1.12. EIGRP Site-of-Origin
      • 4.1.13. PE-CE Routing with BGP
      • 4.1.14. BGP SoO Attribute
      • 4.1.15. Internet Access
      • 4.1.16. Route Leaking
      • 4.1.17. AToM
      • 4.1.18. L2TPV3
      • 4.1.19. MPLS VPN Performance Tuning
    • 4.2. IPsec LAN-to-LAN
      • 4.2.1. ISAKMP Policies
      • 4.2.2. PSK Authentication
      • 4.2.3. Static Crypto Maps
      • 4.2.4. IPsec over GRE
      • 4.2.5. Static VTI
    • 4.3. DMVPN
      • 4.3.1. Single Hub
      • 4.3.2. NHRP
      • 4.3.3. DMVPN Phase 1, 2, & 3
      • 4.3.4. QoS Profiles
      • 4.3.5. QoS Pre-Classify
  • 5. Multicast
    • 5.1. Layer 2 Multicast
      • 5.1.1. IGMPv1, IGMPv2, IGMPv3
      • 5.1.2. IGMP Snooping
      • 5.1.3. IGMP Querier Election
      • 5.1.4. IGMP Filtering
      • 5.1.5. IGMP Proxy
      • 5.1.6. IGMP Timers
      • 5.1.7. Multicast VLAN Registration
      • 5.1.8. IGMP Profiles
    • 5.2. IPv4 Multicast Routing
      • 5.2.1. PIM Dense Mode
      • 5.2.2. PIM Sparse Mode
      • 5.2.3. PIM Sparse Dense Mode
      • 5.2.4. Static RP
      • 5.2.5. Auto-RP
        • Auto-RP
        • Sparse Dense Mode
        • Auto-RP Listener
        • Multiple Candidate RPs
        • Filtering Candidate RPs
        • RP & MA placement problems
      • 5.2.6. Bootstrap Router
        • BSR
        • Multiple RP Candidates
        • Multiple BSR Candidates
      • 5.2.7. Source Specific Multicast
      • 5.2.8. Bidirectional PIM
      • 5.2.9. Group to RP Mapping
      • 5.2.10. Anycast RP
      • 5.2.11. MSDP
      • 5.2.12. MSDP SA Filtering
      • 5.2.13. Multicast TTL Scoping
      • 5.2.14. Auto-RP & BSR Boundary Filtering
      • 5.2.15. PIM Accept Register Filtering
      • 5.2.16. PIM Accept RP Filtering
      • 5.2.17. RPF Failure
      • 5.2.18. Registration Failure
      • 5.2.19. PIM DR Election
      • 5.2.20. PIM DF Election
      • 5.2.21. PIM Assert
      • 5.2.22. Static Multicast Routes
      • 5.2.23. Multicast BGP
      • 5.2.24. PIM NBMA Mode
      • 5.2.25. Multicast over GRE
      • 5.2.26. Stub Multicast Routing
      • 5.2.27. Multicast Helper Map
      • 5.2.28. Multicast Rate Limiting
      • 5.2.29. Multicast BGP
    • 5.3. IPv6 Multicast Routing
      • 5.3.1. IPv6 PIM and MLD
      • 5.3.2. IPv6 PIM BSR
      • 5.3.3. IPv6 Embedded RP
      • 5.3.4. IPv6 SSM
  • 6. QoS
    • 6.1. Hold-Queue and Tx-Ring
    • 6.2. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
    • 6.3. Selective Packet Discard
    • 6.4. Payload Compression on Serial Links
    • 6.5. Generic TCP/UDP Header Compression
    • 6.6. MLP Link Fragmentation and Interleaving
    • 6.7. MQC Classification and Marking
    • 6.8. MQC Bandwidth Reservations and CBWFQ
    • 6.9. MQC Bandwidth Percent
    • 6.10. MQC LLQ and Remaining Bandwidth Reservations
    • 6.11. MQC WRED
    • 6.12. MQC Dynamic Flows and WRED
    • 6.13. MQC WRED with ECN
    • 6.14. MQC Class-Based Generic Traffic Shaping
    • 6.15. MQC Class-Based GTS and CBWFQ
    • 6.16. MQC Single-Rate Three-Color Policer
    • 6.17. MQC Hierarchical Policers
    • 6.18. MQC Two-Rate Three-Color Policer
    • 6.19. MQC Peak Shaping
    • 6.20. MQC Percent-Based Policing
    • 6.21. MQC Header Compression
    • 6.22. Voice Adaptive Traffic Shaping
    • 6.23. Voice Adaptive Fragmentation
    • 6.24. Advanced HTTP Classification with NBAR
  • 7. Security
    • 7.1. Layer 2 Security
      • 7.1.1. Port Protection
      • 7.1.2. Private VLANs
      • 7.1.3. Port Based ACLs
      • 7.1.4. VLAN ACLs for IP Traffic
      • 7.1.5. VLAN ACLs for Non-IP Traffic
      • 7.1.6. Storm Control
      • 7.1.7. Port Security
      • 7.1.8. HSRP and Port-Security
      • 7.1.9. ErrDisable Recovery
      • 7.1.10. DHCP Snooping
      • 7.1.11. DHCP Snooping and the Information Option
      • 7.1.12. Dynamic ARP Inspection
      • 7.1.13. IP Source Guard
    • 7.2. Management Plane Security
      • 7.2.1. AAA Authentication Lists
      • 7.2.2. AAA Exec Authorization
      • 7.2.3. AAA Local Command Authorization
      • 7.2.4. Controlling Terminal Line Access
      • 7.2.5. IOS Login Enhancements
      • 7.2.6. IOS Resilient Configuration
      • 7.2.7. Role-Based CLI
    • 7.3. Control Plane Security
      • 7.3.1. Controlling the ICMP Messages Rate
      • 7.3.2. Control Plane Policing
      • 7.3.3. Control Plane Protection (CPPr)
      • 7.3.4. Control Plane Host
    • 7.4. Data Plane Security
      • 7.4.1. Traffic Filtering Using Standard Access-Lists
      • 7.4.2. Traffic Filtering Using Extended Access-Lists
      • 7.4.3. Traffic Filtering Using Reflexive Access-Lists
      • 7.4.4. IPv6 Traffic Filter
      • 7.4.5. Filtering Fragmented Packets
      • 7.4.6. Filtering Packets with Dynamic Access-Lists
      • 7.4.7. Filtering Traffic with Time-Based Access Lists
      • 7.4.8. Traffic Filtering with Policy-Based Routing
      • 7.4.9. Preventing Packet Spoofing with uRPF
      • 7.4.10. Using NBAR for Content-Based Filtering
      • 7.4.11. TCP Intercept
      • 7.4.12. TCP Intercept Watch Mode
      • 7.4.13. Packet Logging with Access-Lists
      • 7.4.14. IP Source Tracker
      • 7.4.15. Router IP Traffic Export (RITE)
      • 7.4.16. IOS ACL Selective IP Option Drop
      • 7.4.17. Flexible Packet Matching
      • 7.4.18. IPv6 First Hop Security
        • RA guard
        • DHCP guard
        • Binding table
        • Device tracking
        • ND inspection/snooping
        • Source guard
        • PACL
  • 8. System Management
    • 8.1. Device Management
      • 8.1.1. Console
      • 8.1.2. Telnet
        • Telnet Service Options
      • 8.1.3. SSH
      • 8.1.4. Terminal Line Settings
      • 8.1.5. HTTP Server and Client
      • 8.1.6. FTP Server and Client
      • 8.1.7. TFTP Server and Client
      • 8.1.8. SNMP
        • SNMPv2 Server
        • SNMPv2c Access Control
        • SNMP Traps and Informs
        • CPU and Memory Thresholds
        • SNMPv3
        • SNMP MAC Address Notifications
        • SNMP Notifications of Syslog Messages
    • 8.2. Logging
      • 8.2.1. System Message Logging
      • 8.2.2. Syslog Logging
      • 8.2.3. Logging Counting and Timestamps
      • 8.2.4. Logging to Flash Memory
      • 8.2.5. Configuration Change Notification and Logging
      • 8.2.6. Configuration Archive and Rollback
      • 8.2.7. Logging with Access-Lists
    • 8.3. NTP
      • 8.3.1. NTP
      • 8.3.2. NTP Authentication
      • 8.3.3. NTP Access Control
      • 8.3.4. NTP Version 3 & 4
    • 8.4. EEM
      • 8.4.1. KRON Command Schedule
      • 8.4.2. EEM Scripting: Interface Events
      • 8.4.3. EEM Scripting: Syslog Events
      • 8.4.4. EEM Scripting: CLI Events
      • 8.4.5. EEM Scripting: Periodic Scheduling
      • 8.4.6. EEM Scripting: Advanced Features
      • 8.4.7. EEM Applets
    • 8.5. Miscellaneous System Management
      • 8.5.1. Auto-Install over LAN Interfaces using DHCP
      • 8.5.2. Auto-Install over LAN Interfaces Using RARP
      • 8.5.3. IOS Menus
      • 8.5.4. IOS Banners
      • 8.5.5. Exec Aliases
      • 8.5.6. TCP Keepalives
      • 8.5.7. Generating Exception Core Dumps
      • 8.5.8. Conditional Debugging
      • 8.5.9. Tuning Packet Buffers
      • 8.5.10. CDP
      • 8.5.11. Remote Shell
  • 9. Network Services
    • 9.1. Object Tracking
      • 9.1.1. IP SLA
      • 9.1.2. Enhanced Object Tracking
      • 9.1.3. Tracking Lists
    • 9.2. First Hop Redundancy Protocols
      • 9.2.1. HSRP
      • 9.2.2. VRRP
      • 9.2.3. GLBP
      • 9.2.4. Router Redundancy and Object Tracking
      • 9.2.5. IPv6 RS & RA Redundancy
    • 9.3. DHCP
      • 9.3.1. DHCP Server
      • 9.3.2. DHCP Client
      • 9.3.3. DHCP Relay
      • 9.3.4. DHCP Host Pools
      • 9.3.5. DHCP On-Demand Pool
      • 9.3.6. DHCP Proxy
      • 9.3.7. DHCP Information Option
      • 9.3.8. DHCP Authorized ARP
      • 9.3.9. SLAAC/DHCPv6 interaction
      • 9.3.10. Stateful & Stateless DHCPv6
      • 9.3.11. DHCPv6 prefix delegation
    • 9.4. DNS
      • 9.4.1. IOS Authoritative DNS Server
      • 9.4.2. IOS Caching DNS Server
      • 9.4.3. IOS DNS Spoofing
    • 9.5. NAT
      • 9.5.1. Basic NAT
      • 9.5.2. NAT Overload
      • 9.5.3. NAT with Route Maps
      • 9.5.4. Static NAT
      • 9.5.5. Static PAT
      • 9.5.6. Static NAT and IP Aliasing
      • 9.5.7. Static Policy NAT
      • 9.5.8. NAT with Overlapping Subnets
      • 9.5.9. TCP Load Distribution with NAT
      • 9.5.10. Stateful NAT with HSRP
      • 9.5.11. Stateful NAT with Primary/Backup
      • 9.5.12. NAT Virtual Interface
      • 9.5.13. NAT Default Interface
      • 9.5.14. Reversible NAT
      • 9.5.15. Static Extendable NAT
      • 9.5.16. NAT ALG
    • 9.6. Traffic Accounting
      • 9.6.1. IP Precedence Accounting
      • 9.6.2. IP Output Packet Accounting
      • 9.6.3. IP Access Violation Accounting
      • 9.6.4. MAC Address Accounting
    • 9.7. NetFlow
      • 9.7.1. Netflow v5 & v9
      • 9.7.2. Netflow Ingress and Egress
      • 9.7.3. Netflow Top Talkers
      • 9.7.4. Netflow Aggregation Cache
      • 9.7.5. Netflow Random Sampling
      • 9.7.6. Netflow Input Filters
      • 9.7.7. Netflow Export
    • 9.8. Miscellaneous Network Services
      • 9.8.1. Proxy ARP
      • 9.8.2. IRDP
      • 9.8.3. Router ICMP Settings
        • TCP Optimization
      • 9.8.4. IOS Small Services and Finger
      • 9.8.5. Directed Broadcasts and UDP Forwarding
      • 9.8.6. NBAR Protocol Discovery
      • 9.8.7. IP Event Dampening
      • 9.8.8. Conditional Debugging
      • 9.8.9. Embedded Packet Capture
      • 9.8.10. Interpreting Packet Captures

by Brian McGahan, CCIE #8593, CCDE #2013::13 at April 17, 2014 04:39 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

It was Inevitable…

Author information

Russ White

Russ White

Russ White is a Network Architect who's scribbled a basket of books, penned a plethora of patents, written a raft of RFCs, taught a trencher of classes, and done a lot of other stuff you either already know about, or don't really care about. You want numbers and letters? Okay: CCIE 2635, CCDE 2007:001, CCAr, BSIT, MSIT (Network Design & Architecture, Capella University), MACM (Biblical Literature, Shepherds Theological Seminary). Russ is a Principal Engineer in the IPOS Team at Ericsson, where he works on lots of different stuff, serves on the Routing Area Directorate at the IETF, and is a cochair of the Internet Society Advisory Council. Russ will be speaking on Network Complexity at RIPE in May, and has recently published a new book, The Art of Network Architecture.

The post It was Inevitable… appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by Russ White at April 17, 2014 01:08 PM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

VMware NSX Documentation and Resources

Dmitri Kalintsev published links to VMware NSX resources and VMware NSX for vSphere online documentation a while ago. It’s great to have product documentation and design guides (although you still can’t download NSX from the VMware download center), but the cynical half of my brain couldn’t help noticing all the promises made in the “Network Gateway Services” section of the resources page.

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 17, 2014 08:39 AM

April 16, 2014

Honest Networker

Hastily upgrading all network equipment after the flood of SSL security advisories

Hastily upgrading all network equipment after the flood of SSL security advisories

Hastily upgrading all network equipment after the flood of SSL security advisories

by ohseuch4aeji4xar at April 16, 2014 08:04 PM

My Etherealmind

Rant: Living with Legacy and Public Cloud Farting

No matter how hard the clouderati click the heels of their brogues together and repeat “public cloud is better” , the simple fact is that most companies have large amounts of IT infrastructure that works just fine and is profitable. To make matters worse, the cost of transformation exceeds the potential financial return while creating […]

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The post Rant: Living with Legacy and Public Cloud Farting appeared first on EtherealMind.

by Greg Ferro at April 16, 2014 01:33 PM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Puppet Is a Tool, DevOps Is a Lifestyle

During Interop 2014 I got involved in numerous interesting conversations revolving around SDN and new operations models (including the heretic idea of bundling appliances with application stacks and making developers responsible for network services).

During one of those discussions someone said “I think I get the ideas behind DevOps, but I don’t think we should configure our network devices with Puppet or Chef” to which I replied “Puppet or Chef are just tools, DevOps is a lifestyle.

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 16, 2014 08:20 AM

XKCD Comics

April 15, 2014

Networking Now (Juniper Blog)

Heartbleed - you couldn't have missed this

A few days ago, heartbleed1.jpgmillions of servers around the world were impacted by Heartbleed, a security vulnerability in OpenSSL. This was arguably one of the hottest topics on the Internet. Organizations scrambled to put a fix in place and update builds. At Juniper, several product teams worked round the clock to ensure that customers get updates on highest priority. As of a short while ago, Junos Pulse Connect Secure (VPN) and Policy Secure (UAC) released patches that would fix the vulnerability for its mobility offering. 

by abharadwaj at April 15, 2014 11:01 PM

Protecting Your Physical Borders Is One Thing. What about Your Critical Data and Infrastructures?



In a recent article, writer Adam Clark Estates shared that, “Over the next three years, the U.S. Army will be filling its brand new cyber warfare institute at West Point with the best and brightest hackers it can find.” This approach aligns well with the sentiments recently expressed by Nawaf Bitar at the RSA Conference in San Francisco in his keynote, “The Next World War Will Be Fought in Silicon Valley.”


It isn’t sufficient for nations to protect only their physical borders. They must protect more. They must protect critical data and infrastructures, including financial systems, wireless communications, electric power grids, oil and natural gas systems, and others, from cybercrime.


Here are three actions to consider as part of embarking on this important endeavor:

1. Evaluate and deploy state of the art/best of breed security and intelligence systems to protect critical infrastructure, especially with the proliferation of multitudes of “smart” gadgets and the inception of “machine-to-machine” communications taking place amongst residents and citizens both within and outside the nation’s borders and which are vulnerable to cyber-attack.


2. Selectively hire white hat hackers who can seek out vulnerabilities in the network.


3. Recruit experienced IT security specialists who will oversee and manage the deployed security systems as well as take rapid action on detected vulnerabilities and remediate post-breach.


While the initiative of taking cybercrime as seriously as physical warfare is agreeable, building a comprehensive and strong plan and “army” who will adeptly fight black hat hackers and “beat them at their own game” is no small feat. As part of building its security intelligence arsenal, federal and law enforcement agencies may want to consider Juniper’s intrusion deception approach that helps stop threats and attackers before they can do harm.


Before embarking on the battle against cybercrime, ensure you have the right plan, people and protection to maximize your chances of success against the enemy!

by skathuria at April 15, 2014 10:33 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

Show 186 – The Silicon Inside Your Network Device – Part 1

This is Part 1 in a special series looking at the inside of your network device. Although software will be at heart of network innovation, it will still run on hardware and it's time to expose the internals of our network hardware and understand the hardware architecture inside a typical device. Many people are surprised to find that CPUs, memory, storage and buses are similar to computers while the forwarding engines are rather spectacularly different. Thanks to our guests for working very hard to bring this show to you.  Simon Chatterjee John Harringation - Network Sherpa and @networksherpa   Why study hardware? Leads to better engineering & purchasing decisions (foresight and BS detection) Quicker troubleshooting - How can a busy egress line card lead to OSPF neighbors dropping on a lightly used line card? Nerd-tastic - Some of the tech is just really really cool. Maybe interesting to listeners. High level types of box (four quadrants) Switches vs routers - back in the mists of time this was a strict technical delineation (L2 vs L3 forwarding), now more of a diffuse set of product expectations (rigidity/scope of forwarding features/scale vs price/density) that tends to mean switches are likely to have fixed packet processing silicon and routers likely to have more highly programmable packet processing silicon. (But with exceptions) Centralized vs distributed - normally the single biggest predictor of overall system complexity. Single pizza box much simpler/cheaper, but active line cards around a switch fabric scales far higher. Pizza Box - components: CPU - Routing protocols and FIB programming, mgmt & services, exception packets and frames (not too many we hope), and system management, Packet Processing Engines: General points - Limited budget in terms of transistor density (heat, cost, signal integrity) - tradeoffs: Specialise e.g. ASIC and you lose flexibility but gain much higher density vs FPGA Process (or die Shink) - e.g. 65nm, 40nm, and 28nm futures - basically how silicon follows Moores law. Moore’s Law indirectly leads to greater industry conformity over time (everyone is producing fewer chips per year, because it takes ever longer to “paint” the increasing “transistor canvas”) Forwarding options Lots of points along the spectrum of trading flexibility with performance/density for specfic use cases CPU - fine for certain functions, but for many mainline packet forwarding functions will easily be 2–3 orders of magnitude worse than dedicated silicon in performance per watt or area. Industry getting better at using this effectively where it makes sense (eg DPDK) Fixed-function silicon (“ASIC”)- (on the smallest pizza boxes just one chip, eg Broadcom Trident, Cisco Monticello, Fulcrum, Marvell, Mellanox.) - Fully featured but inflexible. Programmable silicon (“NPU”) - eg Juniper Trio, EZchip, Cisco nPower - trades raw density/throughput for greater flexibility. Run microcode. Many variants - sometimes these are arrays of parallel packet processing engines. FPGA - Xilinx and Altera - Powerful and flexible but at at a majo dollar $ and power/heat cost. Complex to program. Programmed once using Verilog/VHDL. Others - eg multicore CPU with hardware assist for crypto/DPI/etc - eg Cavium (Open Compute 40G L7 processor Engine)

by Packet Pushers Podcast at April 15, 2014 08:21 PM

My Etherealmind

Response: RFC 7167 – A Framework for Point-to-Multipoint

Frame Relay was to teach multipoint networking to upcoming engineers and we recently abandoned on the curriculum. Now it's back in MPLS-TP.

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The post Response: RFC 7167 – A Framework for Point-to-Multipoint appeared first on EtherealMind.

by Greg Ferro at April 15, 2014 06:56 PM

Brocade Vyatta & Forwarding Performance on X86 Server

It's a constant and oft repeated fallacy that software on x86 servers will never forward packets at speed. Here is Vyatta explaining why their software will be able to go past 100 Million Packets Per Second this year on standard COTS hardware.

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by Greg Ferro at April 15, 2014 04:38 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

Why Internet Standards are Still Important

Vidya Narayana, in a piece at Gigaom, said recently: So, why did I actually stop contributing to standards definitions? The primary one is the fact that while the pace at which standards are written hasn’t changed in many years, the pace at which the real world adopts software has become orders of magnitude faster. Standards, unfortunately, […]

Author information

Russ White

Russ White

Russ White is a Network Architect who's scribbled a basket of books, penned a plethora of patents, written a raft of RFCs, taught a trencher of classes, and done a lot of other stuff you either already know about, or don't really care about. You want numbers and letters? Okay: CCIE 2635, CCDE 2007:001, CCAr, BSIT, MSIT (Network Design & Architecture, Capella University), MACM (Biblical Literature, Shepherds Theological Seminary). Russ is a Principal Engineer in the IPOS Team at Ericsson, where he works on lots of different stuff, serves on the Routing Area Directorate at the IETF, and is a cochair of the Internet Society Advisory Council. Russ will be speaking on Network Complexity at RIPE in May, and has recently published a new book, The Art of Network Architecture.

The post Why Internet Standards are Still Important appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by Russ White at April 15, 2014 11:25 AM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

IS-IS in Avaya’s SPB Fabric: One Protocol to Bind Them All

Paul Unbehagen made an interesting claim when presenting Avaya network built for Sochi Olympics during a recent Tech Field Day event: “we didn’t need MPLS or BGP to implement L2- and L3VPN. It was all done with SPB and IS-IS.”

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 15, 2014 09:45 AM

The Networking Nerd

Security’s Secret Shame


Heartbleed captured quite a bit of news these past few days.  A hole in the most secure of web services tends to make people a bit anxious.  Racing to release patches and assess the damage consumed people for days.  While I was a bit concerned about the possibilities of exposed private keys on any number of web servers, the overriding thought in my mind was instead about the speed at which we went from “totally secure” to “Swiss cheese security” almost overnight.

Jumping The Gun

As it turns out, the release of the information about Heartbleed was a bit sudden.  The rumor is that the people that discovered the bug were racing to release the information as soon as the OpenSSL patch was ready because they were afraid that the information had already leaked out to the wider exploiting community.  I was a bit surprised when I learned this little bit of information.

Exploit disclosure has gone through many phases in recent years.  In days past, the procedure was to report the exploit to the vendor responsible.  The vendor in question would create a patch for the issue and prepare their support organization to answer questions about the patch.  The vendor would then release the patch with a report on the impact.  Users would read the report and patch the systems.

Today, researchers that aren’t willing to wait for vendors to patch systems instead perform an end-run around the system.  Rather than waiting to let the vendors release the patches on their cycle, they release the information about the exploit as soon as they can.  The nice ones give the vendors a chance to fix things.  The less savory folks want the press of discovering a new hole and project the news far and wide at every opportunity.

Shame Is The Game

Part of the reason to release exploit information quickly is to shame the vendor into quickly releasing patch information.  Researchers taking this route are fed up with the slow quality assurance (QA) cycle inside vendor shops.  Instead, they short circuit the system by putting the issue out in the open and driving the vendor to release a fix immediately.

While this approach does have its place among vendors that move a glacial patching pace, one must wonder how much good is really being accomplished.  Patching systems isn’t a quick fix.  If you’ve ever been forced to turn out work under a crucial deadline while people were shouting at you, you know the kind of work that gets put out.  Vendor patches must be tested against released code and there can be no issues that would cause existing functionality to break.  Imagine the backlash if a fix to the SSL module cause the web service to fail on startup.  The fix would be worse than the problem.

Rather than rushing to release news of an exploit, researchers need to understand the greater issues at play.  Releasing an exploit for the sake of saving lives is understandable.  Releasing it for the fame of being first isn’t as critical.  Instead of trying to shame vendors into releasing a patch rapidly to plug some hole, why not work with them instead to identify the issue and push the patch through?  Shaming vendors will only put pressure on them to release questionable code.  It will also alienate the vendors from researchers doing   things the right way.

Tom’s Take

Shaming is the rage now.  We shame vendors, users, and even pets.  Problems have taken a back seat to assigning blame.  We try to force people to change or fix things by making a mockery of what they’ve messed up.  It’s time to stop.  Rather than pointing and laughing at those making the mistake, you should pick up a keyboard and help them fix it. Shaming doesn’t do anything other than upset people.  Let’s put it to bed and make things better by working together instead of screaming “Ha ha!” when things go wrong.

by Tom Hollingsworth at April 15, 2014 05:10 AM


Is The CCIE Certification Losing Value?

I keep running into folks who think the CCIE certification is losing value. The general idea is that the CCIE is where the networking has been, but is not where networking is going. The logic goes that if you want to lead the charge into networking’s future, don’t embark on the CCIE journey. […]

by Ethan Banks at April 15, 2014 03:45 AM

PacketLife.net Blog

Deploying Datacenter MPLS/VPN on Junos

One of my recent projects has been deploying an MPLS/VPN architecture across a pair of smallish datacenters comprised entirely of Juniper gear. While I'm no stranger to MPLS/VPN, I am still a bit green to Junos, so it was a good learning exercise. My previous articles covering MPLS/VPN on Cisco IOS have been fairly popular, so I figured it would be worthwhile to cover a similar implementation in the Juniper world.

For our datacenters, we decided to implement a simple spine and leaf topology with a pair of core routers functioning as IBGP route reflectors and a pair of layer three ToR switches in each server rack. The spine is comprised of four layer three switches which run only MPLS and OSPF; they do not participate in BGP.


This article assume some basic familiarity with MPLS/VPN, so if you're new to the game, consider reading through these previous articles for some background before continuing:

Continue reading · 4 comments

by Jeremy Stretch at April 15, 2014 01:17 AM

April 14, 2014

My Etherealmind

Response: Speeds and Feeds › Of Money, Responsibility, and Pride

Steve Marquess who manages the business side of the OpenSSL Foundation talks about the shabby state of corporate support for open source development. I want to call out this paragraph first (although many other are more interesting), about the courage and discipline it takes to publish your work in the face of fear of public […]

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by Greg Ferro at April 14, 2014 02:00 PM

Security to the Core | Arbor Networks Security

The Heartburn Over Heartbleed: OpenSSL Memory Leak Burns Slowly

Marc Eisenbarth, Alison Goodrich, Roland Dobbins, Curt Wilson

A very serious vulnerability present in OpenSSL 1.0.1 for two years has been disclosed (CVE-2014-0160). This “Heartbleed” vulnerability allows an attacker to reveal up to 64kb of memory to a connected client or server. This buffer-over-read vulnerability can be used in rapid succession to exfiltration larger sections of memory, potentially exposing private keys, usernames and passwords, cookies, session tokens, email, or any other data that resides in the affected memory region. This flaw does not affect versions of OpenSSL prior to 1.0.1.  This is an extremely serious situation, which highlights the manual nature of the tasks required to secure critical Internet services such as basic encryption and privacy protection.

As the vulnerability has been present for over two years, many modern operating systems and applications have deployed vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. OpenSSL is the default cryptographic library for Apache and nginx Web server applications, which together account for an estimated two-thirds of all Web servers. OpenSSL is also used in a variety of operating systems, including BSD variants such as FreeBSD, and Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, CENTOS, Fedora and more. Other networking gear such as load-balancers, reverse proxies, VPN concentrators, and various types of embedded devices are also potentially vulnerable if they rely on OpenSSL, which many do. Additionally, since the vulnerability’s disclosure, several high-profile sites such as Yahoo Mail, Lastpass, and the main FBI site have reportedly leaked information. Others have discussed the impact on underground economy crime forums, which were reportedly vulnerable to the matter and were attacked.

A key lesson is that OpenSSL, which is a vital component of the confidentiality and integrity of uncounted systems, applications and sites across the Internet, is an underfunded, volunteer-run project, which is desperately in need of major sponsorship and attendant allocation of resources.

Anyone running OpenSSL on a server should upgrade to version 1.0.1g. For earlier versions, re-compiling with the OPENSSL_NO_HEARTBEATS flag enabled will mitigate this vulnerability. For OpenSSL 1.0.2, the vulnerability will be fixed in 1.0.2-beta2. In terms of remediation, there’s a huge amount of work that must be done, not only for servers, but also for load-balancers, reverse proxies, VPN concentrators, various types of embedded devices, etc.  Applications which were statically compiled against vulnerable versions of the underlying OpenSSL libraries must be re-complied; private keys must be invalidated, re-generated, and re-issued; certificates must be invalidated, re-generated, and re-issued – and there are a whole host of problems and operational challenges associated with these vital procedures. Some systems may be difficult to patch, so network access control restrictions or the deployment of non-vulnerable proxies may be considered where possible to reduce the attack surface.

In most cases, exploitation of this vulnerability leaves no sign in server logs, making it difficult for organizations to know if they have been compromised. In addition, even after applying the OpenSSL patch, private keys, passwords, authentication credentials or any other data that was stored in heap memory used by OpenSSL may have already been compromised by attackers, potentially going as far back as two years. Of significant concern is the compromise of private key material, and one security organization reported that they were able to obtain this material during testing. Others reported difficulty in obtaining certificate material but were able to discover significant amounts of other sensitive data. Considering how easy it is for attackers to hammer this vulnerability over and over again in a very quick sequence, the amount of memory being disclosed can be quite substantial. Memory contents will vary depending on program state and controlling what is returned and what position in memory the contents are read from is much like a game of roulette.

Risk to Private Key Material
Security researchers in a Twitter exchange starting on April 8 2014 indicate that private keys have been extracted in testing scenarios, and other researchers suggest that attacking the servers during or just after log rotation and restart scripts run could expose private key material. This allegation has not been tested by ASERT.

For further details, please see the Twitter thread at https://twitter.com/1njected/status/453781230593769472


Incident Response and Attack Tools
While there has been some call to avoid over-reaction, organizations should strongly consider revoking and reissue certificates and private keys; otherwise, attackers can continue to use private keys they may have obtained to impersonate Websites and/or launch man-in-the-middle attacks. Users should change usernames and passwords as well, but should not enter login credentials on Websites with vulnerable OpenSSL deployments. To do so could invite attackers to compromise both the old and new credentials if they were exposed in memory.

Many tools have been made available to test for the vulnerability and these same tools are available for attackers to use as well. It is also reasonable to consider that the password reuse problem will again cause additional suffering, because the same passwords shared across multiple systems create an extension of attack surface. A shared password that provides access to a sensitive system, or to an e-mail account used for password resets, can be all that an attacker needs to infiltrate an organizations defenses along multiple fronts.

Multiple proof-of-concept exploits have already been published, and a Metasploit module has been published. Attackers of all shapes and sizes have already started using these tools or are developing their own to target vulnerable OpenSSL servers. There have been reports that scanning for vulnerable OpenSSL servers began before the disclosure of the bug was made public, although other reports suggest that these scans may not have been specifically targeting the Heartbleed vulnerability.

ATLAS Indicates Scanning Activity
ASERT has observed an increase in scanning activity on tcp/443 from our darknet monitoring infrastructure, over the past several days, most notably from Chinese IP addresses (Figure 1, below). Two IP addresses ( and observed scanning tcp/443 have been blacklisted by Spamhaus for exploit activity. Scans from Chinese sources are predominately coming from AS4143 (CHINANET-BACKBONE) and AS23724 (CHINANET-IDC-BJ-AP).

Figure 1:       TCP/443 scans, Tuesday – Wednesday (April 8-9)



Attacks observed by ASERT decreased by Thursday as of this report writing. China still accounted for the largest percentage of detected scan activity:

Figure 2:       TCP/443 scans, Thursday (April 10)



Pravail Security Analytics Detection Capabilities

Arbors Pravail Security Analytics system provides detection for this vulnerability using the following rules:

2018375 ­ ET CURRENT_EVENTS TLS HeartBeat Request (Server Intiated)

2018376 ­ ET CURRENT_EVENTS TLS HeartBeat Request (Client Intiated)

2018377 ­ ET CURRENT_EVENTS Possible OpenSSL HeartBleed Large HeartBeat
Response (Client Init Vuln Server)

2018378 ­ ET CURRENT_EVENTS Possible OpenSSL HeartBleed Large HeartBeat
Response (Server Init Vuln Client)

Examples of detection capabilities are reproduced below.


Heartbleed detection tool screenshot

Heartbleed detection tool screenshot


Analysis of Historical Packet Captures Using New Indicators
In the event of this, and other security threats that are highly emergent, organizations may wish to consider implementing analysis capabilities on archived packet captures in order to detect first signs of attack activity. Granular analysis using fresh indicators can help pinpoint where and when a targeted attack (or a commodity malware attack, for that matter) may have first entered the network, or when such attackers may have exfiltrated data using a technique that was not yet being detected on the wire during the time of the initial attack and infiltration. The capabilities of Pravail Security Analytics will give organizations the means to accomplish such an analysis. A free account is available at https://www.pravail.com/ and rest assured that this site is using the latest non-vulnerable OpenSSl version.

Longer-Term Implications and Lessons Learned
Serious questions have been raised regarding the notification process surrounding this vulnerability.  The operational community at large have voiced serious disapproval surrounding the early notification of a single content delivery network (CDN) provider, while operating system vendors and distribution providers, not to mention the governmental and financial sectors, were left in the dark and discovered this issue only after it was publicly disclosed via a marketing-related weblog post by the CDN vendor in question.  It has been suggested that the responsible disclosure best practices developed and broadly adopted by the industry over the last decade were in fact bypassed in this case, and concerns have been voiced regarding the propriety and integrity of the disclosure process in this instance.

Recent indications that a significant number of client applications may be utilizing vulnerable versions of OpenSSL as well has broad implications, given the propensity of non-specialist users to ignore software updates and to continue unheedingly running older versions of code.

Furthermore, only ~6% of TLS-enabled Websites (and an undetermined, but most probably even-smaller percentage of other types of systems) make use of Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS). This configurable option ensures that if an issue of this nature arises, previously encrypted traffic retained in packet captures isn’t susceptible to retrospective cryptanalysis.

Without PFS, there are no automated safeguards that can ameliorate these issues, once a vulnerability of this nature has been exposed.  Many operators and users may not realize that if attackers captured packets of encrypted traffic in the past from vulnerable services/applications which weren’t configured with PFS – i.e., the overwhelming majority of such systems – and have retained those captured packets, they’ve the opportunity now to use analysis tools to replay those packets and decrypt the Internet traffic contained in those packets. This means that attackers can potentially unearth their credentials, intellectual property, personal financial information, etc. with access to previously captured packet-dumps.

The ability for an attacker to decrypt packet capture archives requires that the attacker has obtained the private keys used to encrypt that traffic. As recent research shows, this is not a theoretical vulnerability – private key material has been compromised in a lab environment and therefore we must assume that attackers have at least the same, if not more substantial capabilities.

The ‘Heartbleed’ vulnerability may well result in an underground market in ‘vintage’ packet captures – i.e., packet captures performed after the date this vulnerability was introduced into OpenSSL, and prior to some date in the future after which it is presumed that the most ‘interesting’ servers, services, applications, and devices have been remediated.

This incident has the potential to evolve into a massive 21st-Century, criminalized, Internet-wide version of the Venona Project, targeting the entire population of Internet users who had the ill fortune to unknowingly make use of encrypted applications or services running vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. This highlights the paradox of generalized cryptographic systems in use over the Internet today.

While the level of complexity required to correctly design and implement cryptosystems means that in most situations, developers should utilize well-known cryptographic utilities and libraries such as OpenSSL, the dangers of a cryptographic near-monoculture have been graphically demonstrated by the still-evolving Heartbleed saga.  Further complicating the situation is the uncomfortable fact that enterprises, governments, and individuals have been reaping the benefits of the work of the volunteer OpenSSL development team without contributing the minimal amounts time, effort, and resources to ensure that this vital pillar of integrity and confidentiality receives the necessary investment required to guarantee its continued refinement and validation.

This is an untenable situation, and it is clear that the current development model for OpenSSL is unsustainable in the modern era of widespread eavesdropping and rapid exploitation of vulnerabilities by malefactors of all stripes. Information on how to support the OpenSSl effort can be found here: https://www.openssl.org/support/

Heartbleed and Availability
While Heartbleed is a direct threat to confidentiality, there are also potential implications for availability.

In some cases, attackers seeking exploitable hosts may scan and/or try to exploit this vulnerability so aggressively that they inadvertently DoS the very hosts they’re seeking to compromise. Organizations should be cognizant of this threat and ensure that the appropriate availability protections are in place so that their systems can be defended against both deliberate and inadvertent DDoS attacks.

It should also be noted that initial experimentation seems to indicate that it’s easiest for attackers to extract the private keys from vulnerable OpenSSL-enabled applications and services, using the least amount of exploit traffic, immediately after they have been started.  Accordingly, organizations should be prepared to defend against DDoS attacks intended to cause state exhaustion and service unavailability for SSL-enabled servers, load-balancers, reverse proxies, VPN concentrators, etc.  The purpose of such DDoS attacks would be to force targeted organizations to re-start these services in order to recover from the DDoS attacks, thus providing the attackers with a greater chance of capturing leaked private keys.

http://www.seacat.mobi/blog/heartbleed Note: This event may have been a false positive caused by ErrataSec’s masscan software (http://blog.erratasec.com/2014/04/no-we-werent-scanning-for-hearbleed.html)

Venona Project: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venona>
PFS: https://community.qualys.com/blogs/securitylabs/2013/08/05/configuring-apache-nginx-and-openssl-for-forward-secrecy

by Arbor Networks at April 14, 2014 11:27 AM

Introducing test-IPv6.arbor.net

I’ve always found sites which test IPv6 connectivity interesting.  In 2005, I implemented the ipv6calc cgi software as part of a server-side include that reported which IPv4 or IPv6 address the visitor was using to visit the Web site.  At that time, the number of IPv6-enabled visitors to the site per month averaged in single digits.

As mentioned in another posting (you can read it here), the “test-ipv6” software is available open-source.  I’ve implemented a mirror of this site at http://test-ipv6.arbor.net and am hoping that there will be more than a handful of IPv6-enabled visitors per month. This Web site, based at Arbor’s engineering lab in Ann Arbor, Michigan, will provide the visitor with information about their IPv6 capabilities and readiness, with a score from 0 to 10.

by Bill Cerveny at April 14, 2014 09:01 AM

State of IPv6: Web Sites Now Offer Easy IPv6 Connectivity Tests

There is a certain level of skill to creating an IPv6-capable network. There is even more skill to creating an IPv6-capable network correctly. To help confirm an IPv6-capable network has been configured correctly and that “upstream” IPv6 connectivity is correct, there are several Web sites which offer basic insights into the quality of IPv6 connectivity.

Such sites have been around in one form or another since at least 2000. The most famous early “test” Web site was perhaps “www.kame.net” – if the turtle (“kame” in Japanese) moved, the site was being reached via IPv6. The openly available “ipv6calc” software included a CGI that allowed one to confirm not only what IP version one was reaching the Web site with, but also information about the address.

To verify basic IPv6 functionality, a good starting point is the Web site “http://test-ipv6.com”.  This Web site provides an IPv6 readiness score from 0 to 10 and measures both client and network IPv6 readiness. In addition to testing for basic IPv6 capabilities, it reports on a sampling of IPv6-enabled destinations that can be reached, as well as IPv6 DNS and large packet support. The site is based on open-source software and source code can be found at https://github.com/falling-sky/source/wiki. There are also numerous mirrors around the world.

Another IPv6 test Web site is http://ipv6-test.com, not to be confused with http://test-ipv6.com mentioned above. This site offers Path MTU tests. http://ipv6-test.com is a bit less specific than http://test-ipv6.com/ about exactly which tests it performs and http://ipv6-test.com does not appear to provide source code or mirrors, as far as I can tell.

A site which offers more comprehensive testing of both IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity is the ICSI “Netalyzer.” This site was funded via a grant from the National Science Foundation and operated by the International Computer Science Institute at University of California -Berkeley. It performs a variety of IPv4 and IPv6 tests, including checks for open network ports, fragmentation functionality, path MTU discovery, general DNS functionality and DNSSec. Netalyzer information is accessible via a Web browser or by running a Java application on the command line. On initial inspection and after an unsuccessful attempt to reach the creators of the site, it appears source code is not available.

Certainly, these Web sites only provide a small amount of data in the quest to fully understand the network that one is connected to and there are other diagnostic tools one should seek to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of characteristics, connectivity and performance of a network.  However, these tools provide an excellent overview of basic IPv6 connectivity and network capabilities.

According to Jason Fesler, developer and maintainer of the test-ipv6.com Web site and the source code, the goal of test-ipv6 was not only to provide basic IP address information, but to help visitors identify certain failure conditions. Said Fesler, “Having no IPv6 is one thing; but having misconfigured IPv6 is a very different problem with very negative user experience issues.  Today, the browsers mostly work around those user experience issues; which create a different headache for system administrators — hiding the problems.”


by Bill Cerveny at April 14, 2014 09:00 AM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Troubleshooting Residential IPv6 Connectivity

Most ISPs rolling out large-scale residential IPv6 (bringing US to ~7%, Switzerland to ~10% and Belgium above 16%) agree it’s a no-brainer, but the rest of the world still hesitates.

To help the dubious majority cross the (perceived) shaky bridge across the gaping chasm between IPv4 and IPv6, a team of great engineers with decades of IPv6 operational experience (including networking gurus from Time Warner, Comcast and Yahoo, and the never-tiring IPv6 evangelist Jan Žorž) wrote an IPv6 Troubleshooting for Helpdesks document.

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 14, 2014 08:18 AM

XKCD Comics

April 13, 2014


SDN Is The Vehicle, Not The Destination

I recently booked a flight to San Francisco for an IT conference I’m attending. Flying, by itself, is not especially exciting to me. That’s not to say that as a consumer of traveling services, I find nothing about travel or airplanes interesting. For example, I am interested in the cost of a trip. […]

by Ethan Banks at April 13, 2014 07:11 PM

Thinking Through A Mellanox Dual-Tier Fixed Switch 10G + 40G Fabric Design

When preparing for “The Ethernet Switching Landscape” presentation at Interop, I did quite a bit of reading through vendor marketing literature and documentation. One proposed fabric design by Mellanox stuck in my brain, because I was having a hard time mapping the numbers in their whitepaper to what the reality would look like. […]

by Ethan Banks at April 13, 2014 06:39 PM

April 12, 2014

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

HTIRW: Overview

Okay, so we all know some little slice or another of the Internet. But how do all these slices really fit together? How does each player in the system make money by getting your device to connect to someone else’s server to grab content (whether or not you just asked for it)? Let’s put it […]

Author information

Russ White

Russ White

Russ White is a Network Architect who's scribbled a basket of books, penned a plethora of patents, written a raft of RFCs, taught a trencher of classes, and done a lot of other stuff you either already know about, or don't really care about. You want numbers and letters? Okay: CCIE 2635, CCDE 2007:001, CCAr, BSIT, MSIT (Network Design & Architecture, Capella University), MACM (Biblical Literature, Shepherds Theological Seminary). Russ is a Principal Engineer in the IPOS Team at Ericsson, where he works on lots of different stuff, serves on the Routing Area Directorate at the IETF, and is a cochair of the Internet Society Advisory Council. Russ will be speaking on Network Complexity at RIPE in May, and has recently published a new book, The Art of Network Architecture.

The post HTIRW: Overview appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by Russ White at April 12, 2014 09:30 PM


FPGAs: A Way Forward For Networking Silicon?

I’ve become somewhat fascinated with the silicon that moves packets around our networks. My knowledge is admittedly shallow on the topic. That said, I believe I can make the following generalizations about the 3 major kinds of networking silicon to be found on the market today. 1. X86. General purpose CPUs are not […]

by Ethan Banks at April 12, 2014 08:50 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

Twitter War !

Through a court-mandated decision, access to Twitter has officially been blocked across all of Turkey. Weather or not this was the right decision; it is evident that people are not happy about it at all. As you already may know, I am originally from Turkey but have been living elsewhere for many years now while […]

Author information

Orhan Ergun

Orhan ERGUN is a Network Architect, mostly focused on Service Provider , Data Center,Virtualization and Security. He has over 10 years in IT. He took part in many network design and deployment projects.He is CCIE#26567,CCDE#2014::17 Twitter : OrhanErgunCCDE

The post Twitter War ! appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by Orhan Ergun at April 12, 2014 12:18 AM

April 11, 2014

My Etherealmind
Cioara's Cisco Blog
My Etherealmind

How To: Simple Juniper SRX Rate-Limiting via Policer

I recently needed to configure rate-limiting on a Juniper SRX650 firewall’s 1GbE interface facing an ISP. The scenario was that the ISP allowed line rate traffic and billed at the 95th percentile of utilization. As long as 95th percentile was under the number of bps we were paying for, there was no excess […]

by Ethan Banks at April 11, 2014 01:05 PM

Honest Networker
Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) 101

When I first heard about NFV, I thought it was just another steaming pile of hype designed to push the appliance vendors to offer their solutions in VM format. After all, we’re past the hard technical challenges: most appliances deserve to have an Intel Inside sticker, performance problems have been addressed (see Intel DPDK, 6WIND, PF_ring and Snabb Switch), so what’s stopping us from deploying NFV apart from stubborn vendors who want to sell hardware, not licenses?

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 11, 2014 08:32 AM

XKCD Comics

April 10, 2014


The Ethernet Switching Landscape – Part 06 – Fabric

This is one of a multi-part series on the Ethernet switching landscape I wrote to support a 2-hour presentation I made at Interop Las Vegas 2014. Part 1 of this written series appeared on NetworkComputing.com. Search for the rest of this series. Ethernet fabric is one of those terms that has been co-opted […]

by Ethan Banks at April 10, 2014 09:49 PM

Networking Now (Juniper Blog)

SecurityWeek: Turning the Tables - Using Evasion Tactics to Help Prevent Malware Infection

Malware-Sandbox-Evasion.jpgWhile attackers are constantly improving their evasion tactics to extend the lifetime of their malware, users can also leverage these types of evasion tactics to help prevent malware infection in the first place.


Read the full article at SecurityWeek.

by MichaelCallahan at April 10, 2014 07:29 PM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Changes in IBGP Next Hop Processing Drastically Improve BGP-based DMVPN Designs

I always recommended EBGP-based designs for DMVPN networks due to the significant complexity of running IBGP without an underlying IGP. The neighbor next-hop-self all feature introduced in recent Cisco IOS releases has totally changed my perspective – it makes IBGP-over-DMVPN the best design option unless you want to use DMVPN network as a backup for MPLS/VPN network.

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by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 10, 2014 07:46 AM

CCIE Journey

“We keep moving forward, opening new doors, and doing new things, because we’re curious and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths.” -Walt Disney

After a few years of floating around a bit, I decided it was time for something new, something different. We put in our second Cisco voice system this week that I am administrating so I decided it was a good time to head down the voice track. I am going to start with the CCNA, and move through the CCNP track, so it will be some time before I am planning on taking any sort of ccie written collaboration exam. Hopefully I can get to that point before I have to re-certify :) I am going to follow Mark Snow’s plan at least until I get done with the CCNP. I have all of INE’s voice material right now, so my plan is to make good use of that material. I would like to get some 2800′s in the basement rack, and get a rack going that matched the older INE blueprint. I have a vmware server running right now with CUCM on it, and have plenty of resources left to get all the servers on it. There is no way I am going to be able to convince the wife to let me build out a full collaboration rack though. It’s will be a lot of rack rentals this time around.

In the end it just feels good to be taking on something new again…

by CCIE Journey at April 10, 2014 01:52 AM

April 09, 2014


Scapple: The $15 Network Diagramming Tool?

According to the good folks at Literature & Latte, Scapple is… …an easy-to-use tool for getting ideas down as quickly as possible and making connections between them. It isn’t exactly mind-mapping software—it’s more like a freeform text editor that allows you to make notes anywhere on the page and to connect them using […]

by Ethan Banks at April 09, 2014 07:11 PM

Packet Pushers Blog/Podcast

Windows ISATAP Client, Part 1

Last month I had the opportunity to work with a company to perform an IPv6 pilot.  There are a lot of elements to light up for an organization to use IPv6, most of them (but not all) being technical in nature.  One of the mechanism I used was ISATAP. In the past I have not […]

Author information

Dan Massameno

Dan Massameno is the president and Chief Engineer at Leaf Point, a network engineering firm in Connecticut.

The post Windows ISATAP Client, Part 1 appeared first on Packet Pushers Podcast.

by Daniel Massameno at April 09, 2014 06:14 PM

My Etherealmind

Internets of Interest for 9th April 2014

  A bumper crop of ten links today since I’ve been distracted with Interop Las Vegas where I presenting sessions & meeting with vendors. Then I flew to New York to perform some analyst work with investment/fund manager types.   The Ethernet Switching Landscape // Speaker Deck – The deck that Ethan Banks used at […]

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by bookmarks at April 09, 2014 06:02 PM

The Difference Between Arista and Competitors (Factories not Babies)

I was asked to describe how Arista has been able to penetrate the networking switch market relatively quickly. Arista was founded in 2004 and ten years later has achieved a competitive position against all the major vendors in networking and specifically against Cisco who has a dominant market position. Most vendors develop product like an […]

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The post The Difference Between Arista and Competitors (Factories not Babies) appeared first on EtherealMind.

by Greg Ferro at April 09, 2014 04:51 PM


The Ethernet Switching Landscape – Part 05 – Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP)

This is one of a multi-part series on the Ethernet switching landscape I wrote to support a 2-hour presentation I made at Interop Las Vegas 2014. Part 1 of this written series appeared on NetworkComputing.com. Search for the rest of this series. In data center design, the ability to use all available links […]

by Ethan Banks at April 09, 2014 02:35 PM

Why I’m Done With Klout (Again)

Klout, for those unfamiliar, has for years been a vaguely useful tool for measuring social media influence. You plug your social media accounts into Klout, gears spin up in the cloud, and Klout spits out a score from 1-100. The higher the score, the greater your social media influence is supposed to be. […]

by Ethan Banks at April 09, 2014 01:41 PM

Cisco IOS Hints and Tricks

Three Common Mistakes That Can Doom Your Private Cloud

In the first half hour of the Infrastructure for Private Clouds workshop at last week’s Interop Las Vegas I focused on business aspects of private cloud design: defining the customers, the services, and the level of self-service you’ll offer to your customers.

Nick Martin published a great summary of these topics @ SearchServerVirtualization; I couldn’t have done it better myself (they want to get your email address, but this article is definitely worth it).

Read more ...

by Ivan Pepelnjak (noreply@blogger.com) at April 09, 2014 09:41 AM

My Etherealmind

Response: Rate-limiting State and Internet Frailty – ACM

This article from the Association of Computing Machinery and written by no less than Paul Vixie. It is a detailed review of the basic facts of the Internet being smart at the edge and dumb in the middle. By design, the Internet core is stupid, and the edge is smart. This design decision has enabled […]

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by Greg Ferro at April 09, 2014 12:52 AM

XKCD Comics